Proactive Personality: A Twenty-Year Review
The proactive personality construct and scale (PPS) have frequently appeared in organizational research since being introduced to the eld in a 1993 Journal of Organizational Behavior article titled “The Proactive Component of Organizational Behavior: A Measure and Correlates” (Bateman and Crant, 1993). This article has been cited almost 500 times as indicated by the Web of Science database, and over 1700 times according to Google Scholar. Proactive personality has been measured using the PPS in over 100 empirical articles published in refereed journals, and in more than 60 doctoral dissertations. It has also been a primary focus of three meta-analyses (Fuller & Marler, 2009; Thomas, Whitman, & Viswesvaran, 2010; Spitzmuller, Sin, Howe, & Fatimah, 2015) and a central part of another that focused on dierent conceptualizations of proactivity (Tornau & Frese, 2013). Proactive personality was included as a predictor variable in an additional seven meta-analyses that focused more broadly on proactive behavior and related constructs (Alarcon, Eschleman, & Bowling, 2009; Allen et al., 2012; Christian, Garza, & Slaughter, 2011; Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005; Ng & Feldman, 2012, 2014; Rauch & Frese, 2007). Thus, the proactive personality construct has received considerable attention in the eld of management since its rst appearance in the literature.