In an introduction to an entry on Planning in the Development Dictionary, Colombian anthropologist Arturo Escobar argues that planning is inextricably linked to development discourse: As the application of scientific and technical knowledge to the public domain, planning lent legitimacy to, and fuelled hopes about, the development enterprise. This chapter presents a chronological account of the evolution of planning education. One of the more dominant development discourses was that of modernization, heavily influenced by economic historian William Rostow's (1960) "stages of economic growth" theory. Modernization theory began to suffer from critiques in the 1960s, as it gradually became clear that its application to policy in the Third World was not producing the anticipated developmental outcomes. The chapter people have argued that planning and the education of planners in the African context has historically been intrinsically linked to the rise of various discourses of development.