Education and training for the intercultural competence of Japanese university graduates: policy, practice, and markets in informal education
For many decades, undergraduate education appeared to occupy a com fortably inconsequential place in postwar Japan’s education and employ ment system. University life was seen widely as a hiatus, preceded by the pressures of entrance examinations and formal and supplementary schooling, and succeeded by a rigorous induction to the working world as constructed by employers. The role of the university as gatekeeper and minder, rather than educator, was encapsulated in the truism that admis sion to university is difficult, while graduation is easy. Although never universally applicable, this stereotype certainly epitomised the mainstream conception of the interface between secondary education, university, and work.