chapter  4
30 Pages

Understanding Individual Motivation in Groups: The Collective Effort Model

WithSteven J. Karau, Kipling D. Williams

Much of the world’s work is accomplished in groups, and many groups perform collective tasks that require the pooling of individual members’ inputs. At a societal level, sports teams, juries, rock groups, quality circles, policy committees, symphony orchestras, construction crews, government assemblies, and research teams provide but a few examples of groups that combine the efforts of individual members into a single group product or outcome. In organizational settings, the issue of group effectiveness has acquired special relevance in recent years with a dramatic increase in the use of work team, participative management, self-management, continuous quality improvement (CQI), and total quality management (TQM) approaches (e.g., Guzzo & Salas, 1995; Hackman & Wageman, 1995; Sundstrom, De Meuse, & Futrell, 1990).