Individual and Situational Influences in Training Motivation
Researchers and practitioners in the field of training evaluation have long used Kirkpatrick’s (1976) fourfold criteria typology for assessing the effec tiveness of training programs. Kirkpatrick’s framework suggests that training should be evaluated in terms of its effects on trainees’: (a) reactions to the program and its content, (b) learning-acquisition of knowledge and/or skills, (c) behavior-changes in the extent to which trainees can execute desired training-related behaviors, and (d) results-extent to which job behav iors change and yield increased organizational effectiveness. Recently there has been a call for an expanded view of training effectiveness. Campbell (1988, 1989), Tannenbaum and Yukl (1992), and others have argued that the role of variables such as trainees’ motivation and attitudes, both before and after training, should be investigated more thoroughly. Other authors (Fleishman & Mumford, 1989; Noe, 1986) have argued that training must be viewed in the context of ongoing organizational processes. Effects beyond the immediate training program, such as individual and situational influences, should be considered if a more complete understanding of what makes for effective training is to be developed. This chapter is designed to help sculpt that larger framework.