New Forms of Class and Racial Segregation: Ghettos or Ethnic Enclaves?
The South African city is a product of apartheid policies. Under apartheid,sociospatial engineering created a spatial separation of residential areas on the basis of ethnic or racial criteria applied in accordance with a dogmatic model of the apartheid city (cf. Bähr and Schröder-Patelay, 1982; Jürgens and Bähr, 1998:4 ff.). Demographic and ethnic segregation, invasion, and succession on the basis of free decisions made by individuals, as posited by the Chicago School, were observable only in the part of the city that was declared “white.” Population groups with other skin colors, in contrast, were restricted to constrained housing markets by state-imposed negative discrimination.