Conclusions and implications
Returning to our research questions listed in the preface, we have seen how the current education reform in China or the NCR has ‘looked West’ by borrowing a number of Western educational ideas and practices for China. Whether in the aim of education, educational management, curriculum content, pedagogy or assessment, there is strong evidence of cross-national attraction towards Western ideologies, logics, policies, models and practices. Underpinning the NCR, as reiterated throughout the chapters, are the ideologies of constructivism and postmodernism that originate from the West. The concepts and practices of ‘school-based curriculum’, ‘student/learner-centred learning’, ‘autonomy’, ‘inquiry’, ‘cooperative learning’ and ‘formative assessment’, etc., are also premised on Western scholarship and writings.