Punishment and parade
This chapter first focuses on a cultural understanding of penalty against a Foucauldian account of penal change and presents a brief history of exile in Russia. It then examines how memory-making in Russia's penal spaces, and the cultural trope of exile, have created, to paraphrase Garland, penal place, penal purpose and penal culture David Garland, Punishment and Modern Society: A Study in Social Theory. Russian imprisonment has evolved against a cultural panorama of using the geographical peripheries of the Tsarist empire and Soviet and post-Soviet nation-state(s), and an exceptional spatial exclusion, to anchor penal and political power. The chapter also offers a new and more developed theorisation for understanding penality in contemporary Russia that may helpfully move prison sociology forward towards considering two things. First, how all forms of incarceration might be experienced as exile. Second is a renewed sense of understanding how historical discourse shapes the fates of those punished.