Stress, distress and IBD
An accumulating body of research has explored the prevalence of stress and distress in inﬂ ammatory bowel disease (IBD) and their roles in the disease course. Three main questions have been explored: Is psychological distress elevated among individuals with active IBD? Does the presence of stress or distress have long-term implications for the course of the disease? And if so, what are the mechanisms by which stress and disease activity may be associated?