Residential Differentiation in Nineteenth-Century Glasgow: A Morphogenetic Study of Pollokshields Garden Suburb
The rise of industrial capitalism and the unprecedented growth of urban populations in nineteenthcentury Britain were accompanied by social and spatial upheavals in the physical fabric of Britain’s cities. The principal social change was a reconstruction of the meaning of status whereby new social classes founded on money replaced a social structure based on occupational clusters promoted by medieval craft guilds. The key spatial change was growing residential differentiation that reinforced the social distance between classes (Briggs 1963). As the nineteenth century advanced, increasing social segregation and social distance were translated into geographical distance and residential segregation as the upper classes, and-by the Edwardian period-the middle classes, engaged in a process of suburbanization (Lawton and Pooley 1976; Shaw 1977; Dennis 1984). The garden suburb was both a key agent of change and a distinctive product of this process of residential suburbanization and segregation.