Cities and Urban Geography
Cities are the focal points in the occupation and utilization of the earth by man. The chapter discusses the two basic aspects of the nature of cities their support and their internal structure. Although the internal pattern of each city is unique in its particular combination of details, most American cities have business, industrial, and residential districts, the forces underlying the pattern of land use can be appreciated if attention is focused on three generalizations of arrangement, by concentric zones, sectors, and multiple nuclei. In many cities the land-use pattern is built not around a single center but around several discrete nuclei. All cities are dependent on transportation in order to utilize the surplus of the land for their support. City organizations recognize the importance of efficient transportation, as witness their constant concern with freight-rate regulation and with the construction of new highways, port facilities, airfields, and the like.