The Nature of Cities
Cities once could rather easily annex nearby areas that became urbanized. Extensive areas could be annexed in advance of the spread of urban development. Urban and metropolitan concentrations could not exist were it not for transportation facilities. Many of the outstanding technological advances have been in transportation, which affects the size, functions, structure, and growth of cities and metropolitan areas. Highways and motor vehicles also are opening up opportunities for lower urban densities. Urban and metropolitan concentrations could not exist were it not for transportation facilities. Transportation costs whether measured in money, or distance are incurred because it is physically impossible and sometimes undesirable to place the activities and uses of land in the best locations for each because other activities and uses that require similar sites bring competitive pressures. F or any given type of use, a balance exists between the costs of competitive sites and the costs of overcoming the friction of distance.