The Economic Base of the Metropolis
Town and umland are, so emphasizes Hans Carol, only two different aspects of one and the same coherent whole. The relationships between city and umland are so intimate that the one puts its imprint on other. The central city depends on its umland not only for labor supply but also for a steady influx of people to maintain a steady population growth. The city became a powerful economic concentration and in part acquired this position in collaboration with its umland which provided it with workers, maintained its population growth, and provided open space for suburban expansion. The umland still offers many possibilities for recreation. However, roads built to open up areas for this purpose are often considered by municipalities as means to promote industrial, commercial, and residential developments. This attitude of municipalities in umland counteracts the aims of planners in city. Planning in different cities gives an excellent illustration of foundations upon which modern town planning in Germany is founded.