Why Planners Fail
The building of new towns in post-war Britain has been a remarkable enterprise. Three of the new towns in Scotland, East Kilbride, Cumbernauld and now Livingston are similarly related to the problems of Glasgow although in the case of the first two towns the sites are rather nearer to the city. Cumbernauld is the last new town on which construction work is in progress having been designated in 1956. The main planning aim at Cumbernauld has been to achieve a unified coherent structure for the town with an urban character arising out of compact planning at a somewhat higher average density of development than in the other new towns. The organisation of an efficient communications pattern in town has been considered as basic principle of the plan. To ensure an easily recognisable communications pattern the multipurpose road was discarded and a traffic flow hierarchy worked out with local development roads, collector roads, main town radial roads and trunk roads.