Interpersonal Cognitive Problem Solving (ICPS): Competence-Building Primary Prevention Program
The prevention program to be described actually consists of two programs, identical in their theory base and training style, one directed toward pre-school children (Shure & Spivack, 1971) and the other toward children in kindergarten and first grade (Shure & Spivack, 1974). Research in their development, and the work of others who have adopted the underlying theory and created new programs for older preadolescents, have been reviewed elsewhere and will not be addressed in this report (see Shure & Spivack, in press; Spivack & Shure, 1982~ Spivack & Shure, 1985). Evaluations of these programs have been quite encouraging, suggesting the approach is generic in nature, adaptable for youngsters in both lower and middle socioeconomic status (Camp & Bash, 1981; Elardo & Cooper, 1977; Weissberg et al., 1979), and usable with abused youngsters and their parents (Nesbitt et al., 1980), learning
disabled youngsters (Weiner, 1978), and for emotionally disturbed children in both outpatient (Yu et aI., 1986) and inpatient (Kazdin et aI., 1987) settings. A meta analysis (Almeida & Denham 1984), employing over 50 studies, indicates that training programs based upon the underlying theory have positive effects at both the cognitive and behavioral levels, as long as no great insult is done to the pedagogical principles which define a minimal standard of prevention program design.