chapter  4
14 Pages

Explanatory Style and Achievement, Depression, and Gender Differences in Childhood and Early Adolescence

BySusan Nolen-Hoeksema, Joan S. Girgus

Much of the data for this chapter comes from three studies that we have conducted with children ranging in age from 8 to 1 5 . Of these studies, two were longitudinal in design: The first followed 1 68 third, fourth, and fifth graders for five testing sessions over 1 5 months; the second began with several hundred third and fourth graders, who were then tested every 6 months for 5 years. The third study was cross-sectional in design; in it, we tested 400 children, approxi-

mately evenly divided among Grades 4, 6, 8, and 10 , and between boys and girls.