Explanatory Style and Achievement, Depression, and Gender Differences in Childhood and Early Adolescence
Much of the data for this chapter comes from three studies that we have conducted with children ranging in age from 8 to 1 5 . Of these studies, two were longitudinal in design: The first followed 1 68 third, fourth, and fifth graders for five testing sessions over 1 5 months; the second began with several hundred third and fourth graders, who were then tested every 6 months for 5 years. The third study was cross-sectional in design; in it, we tested 400 children, approxi-
mately evenly divided among Grades 4, 6, 8, and 10 , and between boys and girls.