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Chapter the Seventh In What Vehicles the Transylvanians

Coaches were all leather-covered Hungarian coaches, and the German coach had not been heard of. It comes to mind that Pal Vesselenyi presented old Prince Mihaly Apaffi with a German coach, and we went to Szeben to see it when I was a chi ld, as it were to see a wonder, for the word had gone around that the Prince had a German coach . There were two sorts of coach, one with a folding hood at both ends--that was the more costly--and the other with ' spikes'59 . The lord that had both sorts of coach (which was rare) went himself in the landau60 , his wife in the 'spiked' . There were many sorts of these, for some had better leather hoods, and likewise the interior upholstery was of various sorts ; for some were upholstered with satin embroidered with floral designs, some with morocco, some with crimson, some with broadcloth of good quality; the Prince's was upholstered with velvet (and its 'spikes' were gilded) ; on the outside the greater part of it was studded with tiny nai ls , as is done on German coaches

too, with brass studs at intervals, inside also, as was fitting. Where the roof was attached to the 'spikes', or the hood to the rails of the landau, there hung a silken fringe, fastened down with brass studs; inside the ' spiked' coach, however, there was in the middle a s i lken tasse l , which hung down l ike a crown, fastened ornamentally in the middle with white and red studs. The middle of the main strut of the landau was held in an iron shoe, on which the hood pivoted up and down, and especially in spring, when the weather was fine and cool, it was let down at both ends, and one sat there as if there were [no] hood; those struts were also upholstered like the interior of a coach, studded, and decorated with matching silken fringes. As for the rear seat, there was also a chest in the rear of the coach and the same at the front, but neither from within nor without could you tell, you would only have thought that it was the back of the front or rear seat of the coach; what was put inside the seats you will shortly see. Furthermore, where one entered the coach there was a wide place, called the window, wide enough for one to enter, and it had a cover of black leather on the outside, and on the inside of the same material as the interior of the coach, quilted and fringed all round the edges; this window-cover hung from the window-frame, and that too, like the coach itself, was covered in leather attached with tiny brass and white studs, and trimmed with a silken fringe ; there were two holes in the window-frame, and over them two buttons of either brass or steel, which were pressed into the holes in the window-frame so that they should not be seen. In the middle of the coach, where one entered, there were on each side two pegs which, as I have described above, were inserted in two button­ holes in the window-cover and held it in place, but the window­ cover opened only on one side, for on the other it was fixed to the middle of the coach by a long iron rod. At the entrance was a strut, hanging from two wide straps , and there was leather underneath it too, and where it was tight against the strut it was fastened with studs . Likewise in the middle of the coach, close to the iron or steel rod that held the window-cover, was a strongly fastened cylindrical piece of wood, about nine inches in length and six in circumference, which also was covered with leather like

the coach, trimmed with a si lken fringe fastened with studs; this one grasped when one wished to enter the coach. On each side of the entrances or windows was quite a long, upright container with a little door-handle, and there were four such at the two windows, and their doors were ornamented with tiny studs . The lower part of the coach too was lined and studded, but part of it was bare boards let into strong oak, that is, where there was need of nothing more . Beside the window, in the oak into which the boards fitted, on both sides both in front and behind, there were two hoops, so that there were eight, two on each side stretching from side to side above and two below. The struts on which the coach was suspended were of wood, carved and painted, furni shed with decorative ironwork both before and behind, ornately decorated with tinplate, and the box was wide from front to rear. There were six globes on the roof of the 'spiked' coach, two in front, two behind and two in the middle; and they were ornamental; on the roof of the landau there was nothing, but it was furrowed, showing the ribs that were in it. In the bottom of the coach, where one's feet were, was a place for storing dishes and luggage; while from its roof there hung all sorts of pieces of leather; in clear weather these were brai led up and in rainy weather let down; in addition the coach had, on both sides from front to rear, a step for a servant to stand on. When I was a very small boy I also saw a glazed coach, and it had a door with tiny panes held in tin, as the other sort of window used to be with circular glass held in tin.