Political recruitment is the process by which individuals secure or are enlisted in the roles of office-holders in the political system, mainly political and administrative office, but in some cases including other office-holders, such as members of the judiciary, the police and the military. The role of the bureaucracy in advising on policy and organising its implementation is at least as important as that of the politicians. The most common process associated with political recruitment is that of election, that is, choosing between two or more candidates for office by means of casting ballots or votes. Patronage was also the basis of recruitment to the British civil service before the NorthcoteTrevelyan reforms in the nineteenth century introduced open, competitive examinations. The final method widely used in political recruitment is that of selection, a regular and systematic process for choosing candidates within parties through selection committees or choosing bureaucrats by examination and various other achievement criteria.