Decision making takes place throughout the EIA process. Many decisions are made by the proponent (for example, choices between various alternatives - see Chapter 8). Others may be made jointly by the proponent and the decisionmaking and environmental authorities (for example, screening and scoping decisions). However, the main decision in the EIA process, whether or not to allow the proposal to proceed (or, less frequently, which alternative to implement) is always taken in the public domain. While the decision-making body may have given previous indications of the likely outcome of this decision, it is normally taken by a central, state/provincial or local government agency, following consultation and public participation. The typical decision taken at this stage in the EIA process is not usually a choice between alternatives, but a seemingly simpler choice between authorisation and refusal.