Benefits and costs of EIA systems
As mentioned in Chapter 1, there has been, as yet, no reliable quantification of the effectiveness of ElA, and it may be that it can only be measured subjectively and qualitatively by examining the attitudes and opinions of those involved. Certainly, it is impossible to establish precisely either the benefits or the costs of ElA. Nevertheless, while the existence of firm justification remains scarce, the continued diffusion of ErA requirements around the world (Sadler, 1996) demonstrates the prevailing belief that ErA is an effective and efficient environmental management tool, i.e. that the benefits conferred by the EIA process outweigh the costs.