International frameworks for psychology education and training: a European perspective
Introduction Among the challenges of the twenty-fi rst century for psychology is its need to ‘internationalize’ both its base of scientifi c knowledge and the nature of its professional or applied practice, while at the same time respecting its diversity. Psychology has a relatively short history which is well-known. Originating with what is frequently referred to as the fi rst psychological laboratory established by Wilhelm Wundt in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany, psychology developed and diversifi ed through the twentieth century during which it was dominated to a considerable extent by the USA, and to a lesser extent by UK and other western-European countries. The present century has brought a greater awareness of the salience of wider economic, societal, cultural and professional demands which require a more international discipline. As Karandashev (2009: 12) suggests, ‘by the second half of the 20th century three worlds of psychology had been formed in relative isolation from each other’ (the USA, developed countries of Europe, and developing countries). It is timely now to consider ways in which these three ‘worlds’ might be integrated, or at the least inform each other, in order to meet the challenges of an increasingly globalized, and mobile, world. A further aspect of the history of psychology, again well-known, is the emergence and enormous growth following World War II, of applied psychology, in particular clinical psychology.