Fringe Political Parties and Social Groups in Britain and France
Historically, both Britain and France have produced small groups and movements which have pursued political or social goals both inside and outside of the electoral arena. Both had prewar labor and suffragette movements, for example, as well as small parties and groups representing all points on the political spectrum. The cycle of protest and activism begun by the political and social conflicts of the 1960s, which is still going strong, created so many more of these groups and movements that, collectively, they added a new dimension to protest politics and literature in both countries. There are literally thousands of these groups in both Britain and France, ranging from local groups to the “new” social movements, which publish materials, much of which has gone uncollected. This type of publication is usually referred to as grey, or fringe, 1 literature.