Planning the Initial Version
Planning involves determination of the test’s purpose: reviewing the relevant literature; development of a table of specifications which leads to content selection; formulation of the initial constructs into test items; designing the normative, reliability, and validity studies; consideration of ethical issues; and funding the project. The planning stages discussed require the input of a statistician, preferably one with expertise in tests and measurement or psycho-metrics. The test developer can avoid problems relating to confidentiality and possible invasion of privacy with careful planning of the project. Developing a norm-referenced test requires patience and planning. The planning of the project is complex, time consuming, and expensive with the success dependent upon the integration of careful attention to design, quality of consultation, and the search for possible sources of funding. Adequate attention to planning requires that each of the steps in the test development process be carefully detailed at the beginning of the project.