Imprensa Nacional. He played football in some Lourenço Marques’ clubs. He was arrested by the Portuguese political police (PIDE) and imprisoned for five years. Following Mozambique’s independence, he became a member of Frelimo (the movement responsible for the freedom struggle, which came into power after the Portuguese left) and presided over the Associação Africana. He received the biggest Portuguese literary award, the Camões Prize in 1991. He is one of the most distinguished poets in the Portuguese language and among the greatest African writers. His first work, Xibugo, was written in 1964.