Winter sports are pursuits played during the winter
season on snow or ice. The Olympic movement
included winter sports for the ﬁrst time in Chamonix
in 1924, with 258 participants from 16 nations.
Today, winter sport Olympians are outnumbered by
about one to four by summer Olympians. Never-
theless, the 2010 Vancouver Olympics reported
the highest number of athletes and events at any one
Winter Olympiad. This paper will ﬁrst discuss the
winter sport speciﬁc environment, altitude and cold,
followed by an applied section emphasizing the
speciﬁc nutrition issues faced by winter sport athletes.
Nutritional implications of altitude and cold