Political party bans in Rwanda 1994–2003: three narratives of justiﬁcation
Among the most prominent cases of political party bans in sub-Saharan Africa in recent decades are the bans on Hutu parties that took place in Rwanda between 1994 and 2003. The Rwandan bans occurred in three waves. The ﬁrst wave comprises the immediate post-genocidal bans on the former state party Mouvement Re´volutionaire Nationale pour le Developpement (MRND) and the radical Hutu party Coalition pour la De´fense de la Re´publique (CDR) in 1994. The second wave consists of a single case, the outlawing of the formation of a new party, Party for Democracy and Regeneration (PDR) ‘Ubuyanja’, in 2001. In a third wave, the largest opposition party, Mouvement De´mocratique Re´publicain (MDR), was banned in 2003 and a successor organization barred from registering in the upcoming elections.