Women’s labor force participation is inﬂuenced by a variety of economic, demographic, and cultural factors that have attracted the attention of both neoclassical and feminist economists. In addition to easily quantiﬁable inﬂuences such as wages, education, and the number and ages of children, gendered norms and expectations greatly inﬂuence women’s labor force participation. Women’s status in both the household and society at large and expectations about gendered household roles exert considerable inﬂuence on women’s willingness and ability to participate in market work.
We are particularly interested in exploring the effects of gender norms in China’s multiethnic society where social roles and expectations have changed rapidly during the transition from socialism to a more marketdriven economy. We expect these inﬂuences to vary considerably by ethnic group.