This essay examines perceptions of the Holocaust in contemporary Estonia. Tocomprehend how Estonians have formed their views on the Holocaust is to understand how they conceive of their history. Whereas in Western Europe and North America the Holocaust is perceived as carrying a universalistic message, in Estonia and other East European countries it is ultimately linked to the Jewish minority. Thus, whatever Estonians think of the Jews as a group translates into their perceptions of the Holocaust and vice versa. Therefore it is essentially impossible to discuss what the Holocaust means to Estonians without assessing the levels of anti-Semitism in Estonian society today.