This chapter aims to show how Turkey's 'Europeanisation' has affected one of its most delicate foreign policy issues, giving new content to a policy which was traditionally shaped by extremely sensitive nationalist perspectives and hard security content. It argues that the interlinkage between Turkey's Cyprus policy and domestic democratisation has been a two-way process. The chapter offers a framework of analysis, making reference to Europeanisation, conditionality and 'democratic peace theory'. It suggests that a settlement on the island would require 'the confirmation of two equal separate states, each as a sovereign entity, forming through an agreement a new partnership state'. Democratic peace theory has been contested, for example by Spiro, who used statistical surveys to question the correlation between democratisation and peace. However, for most of the 1990s, European Union pressure on Turkey both to democratise and to change its Cyprus policy seemed to have little effect.