Helmut Graupner (www.graupner.at), Doctor in Law (University of Vienna), is Rechtsanwalt (attorney-at-law), admitted to the bar in Austria and in the Czech Repub lic. He is Vice President of the Austrian Society for Sex Research (OGS) (www.oegs. net; www.courage-beratung.at) and President of the Austrian lesbian and gay rights or ganisation Rechtskomitee LAMBDA (RKL) (www.RKLambda.at); Vice President for Europe, International Lesbian and Gay Law Association (ILGLaw) (www.ILGLaw. org); Austrian member, European Group of Experts on Combating Sexual Orientation Discrimination working for the Commission of the European Union (http://www. meijers.leidenuniv.nl/index.php3 ?m= 10&c=98); member, Scientific Committee of the Center for Research and Comparative Legal Studies on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity (CERSGOSIG), Turin (www.cersgosig.informagay.it); member, Editorial Board of the Journal o f Homosexuality', member, World Association for Sexology (WAS) (www.worldsexology.org); member, Expert Committee for the Revision of the Law on Sexual Offences, appointed by the Austrian Minister of Justice in 1996; 1996 and 2003, expert, Justice Committee of the Austrian Federal Parliament; 2002 and 2004, lecturer, University of Innsbruck (“Sexuality & the Law”); 2001, Gay and Les bian Award (G.A.L.A.) of the Austrian Lesbian and Gay Movement (http://www.hosilinz. at/presse/2001/011013_gala2001 .html). This essay is based upon a paper of same title presented at the International Bar Association (IBA) 2000 Annual Conference (Am sterdam, September 17th-22nd 2000). Last update: 11.01.2004. Correspondence may be addressed: Rechtskomitee LAMBDA, Linke Wienzeile 102, A-l 160 Vienna, Aus tria (E-mail: email@example.com).