Down syndrome is one of the most common conditions leading almost universally to intellectual and physical disability and, although a great deal is known about the effects of the syndrome on growth and development, there is much left to understand about the implications for teaching and learning. Educating Learners with Down Syndrome brings together current knowledge of Down syndrome of relevance to those professionals involved in the teaching of people with Down syndrome and provides suggestions for further research. In this chapter, we set the scene for this book. We begin with background information about Down syndrome, including historical perspectives, followed by current views on learning and related health matters, acknowledging aspects of living with Down syndrome. The ﬁnal section focuses on themes that emerge in the light of educating learners. This book is intended for education researchers and practitioners and brings together work from a number of disciplines to aid them in their endeavours.