Children with Down syndrome have a distinct proﬁle of language and memory delays and difﬁculties which have implications for the development and teaching of literacy in this group. In this chapter, we review what is known about reading skills and the teaching of reading in children with Down syndrome. We discuss how language, speech, and phonology are related to reading and the possibility that reading instruction and reading progress may have beneﬁts for aspects of language and memory. Writing abilities are also reviewed. Finally, we identify the implications of current knowledge for instruction.