Improving water productivity (WP), especially in agriculture, is increasingly recognized as a central challenge in international development (Rockström et al., 2003; Comprehensive Assessment, 2007; USAID, 2009; CAADP, 2012; UNEP, 2012). The development research community (e.g., Rockström et al., 2003; CA, 2007) cast prominent attention on the potential for WP improvements to help unlock the economic potential of developing country farmers. FAO (2003) stated that improving agricultural water productivity is an important solution to addressing global water challenges. USAID’s (2009) Addressing Water Challenges in the Developing World: A Framework for Action identiﬁed “improving water productivity” as one of its three core dimensions. The Comprehensive African Agricultural Development Pro - gram (CAADP) has given attention to the concept as a means to achieving its broader goals (CAADP, 2012). Finally, UNEP (2012) identi ﬁed WP, as well as water use efﬁciency, as important indicators of water use in a green economy.