chapter  29
18 Pages


WithLuc Faucher

Contemporary social sciences and philosophy have identified many different forms of racism. P. Ikuenobe proposed two variations of classical racism: closet and tolerant racism. A closet racist is someone that "has the relevant racist beliefs and attitudes but does everything possible consciously to conceal them, but those racist attitudes and beliefs may be expressed occasionally, albeit inadvertently and unconsciously." A tolerant racist has the relevant racist beliefs or attitudes, expresses them, but is willing to coexist with Blacks. The chapter considers institutional racism or structural racism, a term introduced by Carmichael and Hamilton to refer to social, economic, or political inequalities disproportionally affecting a racialized group. This form of racism is called "institutional" or "structural" because it is thought that these inequalities are produced by social structures or cultural practices or political institutions that create, perpetuate, or accentuate the unfair advantages of a dominant racialized group on a dominated one.