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Comparison and implications
WithBennis Wai Yip So, Yuang-kuang Kao

This conclusion presents some closing thoughts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book demonstrates that bureaucratic politics framed by 'fragmented authoritarianism' remains prevalent in the policy process. Democratization characterizes the changing of the policy process of the island. Electoral politics has had a deep impact on the policy-making in Taiwan. The changing policy process is being framed by a 'semi-democracy' or a 'half-baked democracy'. The contribution of civic engagement is relatively less manifest in Taiwan as a functioning electoral democracy, but civic engagement seems to be a further advancement toward a participatory democracy after the first wave of democratization in the 1990s. Competitive elections matter more in Taiwan and Hong Kong. Public opinion conveyed by the mass media crucially influences the agenda-setting and decision-making of political leaders in Taiwan. The case of participatory budgeting practised in the local people's congresses seems to show meaningful citizen participation in the policy process.