chapter  1
4 Pages

State of mental health care in the Republic of Kazakhstan Saya Nurmagambetova and Marat Assimov

The Republic of Kazakhstan is the ninth largest country in the world, at 2,774,000 square kilometres. It is located across the junction of two continents – Europe and Asia. To the east, north and northwest Kazakhstan has borders with Russia; in the south with the Central Asian states – Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan; in the southeast with China. The total length of the borders is over 12,200 km, including 600 km along the Caspian Sea (in the west). Over a quarter of the territory of Kazakhstan is covered by steppes, half by deserts and semi-deserts, and the remaining quarter by mountains, lakes and rivers, and coastal areas. The water resources of Kazakhstan depend to a large extent on the rivers and lakes. The rivers are largely fed by glaciers. Kazakhstan’s climate is strongly continental. Average temperatures in January range from –19°C to –4°C, in July from +19°C to +26°C. The lowest recorded temperature is –45°C, the highest +30°C.1