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WithThambu Maniam

Four countries are included in this section – Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore. While they share some historical similarities, there are also experiences unique to each country. These nations were colonies of the Western powers until the second half of the twentieth century. This had a major impact on the development of psychiatric services in these countries. The Philippines was the first country to be colonized, initially by the Spanish, and later by the USA; Indonesia was next, by the Dutch; then Singapore and lastly Malaysia, both by the British. Indonesia is the most populous nation in this region; the city state of Singapore is the most developed.