chapter  6
15 Pages

Snakeheads and the Cartwheel Network: Functional Fluidity as Opposed to Structural Flexibility

Chinese human smuggling has emerged and prospered in the past few decades because of the increased demand for transnational migration in China. The restrictive immigration procedures imposed by most western countries, the US in particular, have only fueled the demand for services provided by human smugglers (Zhang, 2007). This has been coupled with a reformulated conceptualization of emigration in China: no longer considered a traitorous act, it is now encouraged as a means of bringing foreign revenue into the country (Landolt & Da, 2005).