chapter  9
Donors, Private Actors, and Contracts: Recasting the Making and Ownership of Education Policy in Pakistan
Pages 18

Multi-and bi-lateral donors have a long history of involvement in Pakistan’s social sectors, particularly in the educational sector. is involvement has taken place largely through interventions in the realm of policy as well as through funding of various modalities such as project aid and budget support. ese funding modalities that have been donor-facilitated, or donor-led, have supported the emergence of the Educational Public Private Partnerships (ePPPs) through education reform policies that have been promoted at the provincial level in Pakistan. e consequence has been a growing presence of private providers, contracted to provide services in the educational sector and as a better alternative to the existing but faltering state educational system.