Relations between the Republic of China and India, 1937–1949
The early twentieth century was one of most vibrant phases of India–China relations. Multifaceted relations developed between the Republic of China and British India after the fall of the Qing Empire in 1911. In the political sphere, these interactions included those between the Guomindang and the British Indian government, and those between the Chinese government representatives and the leaders of the Indian National Congress. Relations during this period were also exemplified by the cultural exchanges that centered on Shantiniketan, where the educational networks established by Rabindranath Tagore fostered close cooperation among Indian and Chinese intellectuals, students, and artists. In addition, the relationship witnessed commercial interactions that ranged from border trade to long-distance overland and maritime commerce. Equally noteworthy were the movement of migrant communities, anti-imperialists, as well as stowaways and deserters between the two regions. This chapter focuses on these four facets of relations between the Republic of China and India from the beginning of the full-fledged Japanese military expansion into East and Southeast Asia in 1937 to the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949.