Settlement pattern archaeology in the Maya Lowlands dates back to the late 19th century. This chapter explores the development of settlement research across four major periods, defined by influential projects, theories, and technologies that shaped the course of scholarship. The intersection of settlement patterns and remote sensing is explored, highlighting the value of these technologies to regional approaches. Presently, settlement archaeology is undergoing a geospatial revolution, initiated by the successes of LiDAR technology in revealing the ancient landscape. The case of LiDAR over the Buenavista Valley and its impact on understanding the rise of Tikal is highlighted as an example.