Preparation and Characterization of Fullerene Derivatives and Their Nanowhiskers
This chapter describes the syntheses of three types of typical fullerene derivatives: malonic acid-type, pyrrolidine-type, and metal complex. Nanowhiskers containing these fullerene derivatives were prepared from a mixture of C60 and fullerene derivatives. The use of fullerene derivatives for nanowhiskers is a potentially convenient method for providing a novel function to fullerene nanowhiskers. Fullerene nanowhiskers (FNWs) are comparable to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) because they are both low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials. Incorporation of functional groups into CNTs is helpful in controlling the properties of CNTs or in adding new functions. Many types of fullerene derivatives have been synthesized by hydrogenation, radical addition, nucleophilic addition, cycloaddition, and other methods. Fullerenes have a characteristic electron-deficient olefin; therefore, double bonds of C60 coordinate to metals to form metal complexes. A diversity of fullerene crystal morphologies was observed in FNWs containing fullerene derivatives depending on the starting composition.