chapter  12
13 Pages

The Philippines

Methodology and practice in community education
WithElizabeth Protacio Marcelino

In July 1990 the Supreme Court of the Republic of the Philippines declared the validity of arrest without warrant and, one month later, of search without warrant. In the Philippines the burning issues are the continuing US bases, human rights, foreign debts and environmental issues. In author’s particular case it was the issue of human rights in the context of community education that brought about the development of political consciousness. Within community education there are three basic concepts. The first is the traditional, authoritarian 'banking' concept of education that will doubtless continue in many countries, partly because it is traditional and partly because there may still be some need for this. The second is that of 'popular' education, based on the felt and expressed needs of the community. The third takes the widest view and is that of multi-ethnic, multi-cultural and intercultural learning. The tragedy of education in context is that it has been and still is highly individualistic.