Neurosurgery: Minimally invasive neurosurgery
Minimally invasive surgical practice has flourished secondarily to the advancement in computer-assisted technology, imaging, optics, and surgical instruments. Neuroimaging modalities such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been integrated with various advanced computerized software, which enable the surgeon to obtain a three-dimensional view of an area of interest while operating. Robots in neurosurgical practice aid in carrying out minimally invasive surgeries. Presence of coexisting systemic diseases needs further focused specialist examination and special investigations. The anesthesia goals remain the same as for all neurosurgical procedures. The endoscopic approach has taken over the earlier microscopic approach for resection of pituitary tumors. The main anesthesia goals are the same as microscopic image-guided resection—to ensure complete patient immobility, be vigilant for sudden increase in intracranial pressure, and plan for an early emergence for prompt neurologic examination.