Gender inequalities pose unprecedented challenges in responding to the impacts of climate change and variability. However, these inequalities are seldom documented in literature and more specifically women’s critical role in responding to climate change is rarely recognised. This chapter deepens our understanding of how rural vulnerable people adapt to and mitigate the consequences of climate change and also how responses (adaptations) to climatic shocks may magnify the effects of many existing drivers of vulnerability using the Lake Chilwa Basin Climate Change Adaptation Programme (LCBCCAP). The implementation of LCBCCAP provides a valid case for the design and development of climate change adaptation programmes; it not only empowers local communities in responding to climate change but provides long-term resilience measures through equity and social justice. It demonstrates that in order to overcome constraints of inequalities between men and women in rural development especially in the face of climate change and variability, programmes need to move beyond conventional social service approaches that emphasise numbers disaggregated into sex toward development goals of equitable opportunities. The gender and climate change interface demonstrates the urgent need to recognise women who are often described in literature as victims of climate change which conceals their contributions in climate change adaptation.