chapter  10
Titus Quinctius Flamininus’ “Italian triumph” *
WithMichael P. Fronda
Pages 20

According to Livy (34.52.2), in 194 Titus Quinctius Flamininus returned from Greece and led his entire army laden with spoils “nearly marching in a triumphal procession” (prope triumphantes) all the way from Brundisium to Rome, where he then celebrated a triumph of unprecedented magnitude. This episode exemplifies several major developments in the relationship between warfare, the army, Roman politics, and Roman-allied relations in the early second century. Lucrative overseas wars following the Second Punic War contributed to scaled-up political competition and more elaborate war commemorations. Flamininus’ “Italian triumph” fits this pattern. In particular, elements of his celebration were designed to outshine Scipio Africanus. Lastly, the audience for the “Italian triumph” between Brundisium and Rome would have included non-Roman Italians, and allied soldiers walked in the procession. References to allies participating in Roman triumphs begin only in the 180s, suggesting that the practice of including allies in the triumph emerged in this period. Flamininus’ “Italian triumph” thus represents an early example in this development, itself a manifestation of accelerated Roman-Italian interaction seen in a variety of spheres (including military service) in the early second century.