Renal function and care
Urinary elimination is a key body function and a subject that nurses ought to understand and address sensitivity with people who may have concerns about it. The process of control of urinary elimination or micturition occurs early in development around two years of age. Children and elderly or confused people are particularly susceptible to dehydration. However, dehydration aside, monitoring urine output is key, as is monitoring the constituents of the urine, and the patterns of and issues with elimination. There are conditions and factors that alter the process of urinary elimination and lead to a situation of lack of control or incontinence. There are various types of alterations to urinary elimination termed ‘incontinence’ types, which have varied causes from nerve damage to pelvic floor muscle weakness or infection. The leakage of urine on exertion to the abdominal walls and pelvic floor is known as ‘stress’ because it stresses the muscles and thus fails to retain urine during these behaviours.