Chemoprophylaxis and Viruses of the Respiratory Tract: Some New Approaches to Antiviral Chemotherapy, Metalloenzyme Inhibition, and Transport by Liposomes
Many diseases of viral origin (including smallpox, yellow fever, and poliomyelitis) can be controlled adequately by the use of vaccines. On the other hand, in diseases such as influenza or the common cold, vaccines are of only limited use because of variability in antigenicity or multiplicity in the number of serotypes (Chapter 1, Volume I). The syndrome of the common cold can be produced by more than 89 rhinoviruses 1 and by other viruses including coronaviruses, myxoviruses (influenza, parainfluenza, and respiratory syncytial viruses), adenoviruses, herpesviruses, enteroviruses, echoviruses, and coxsackieviruses. Prospects for preparing a general common cold vaccine are very poor. Possible avenues for the chemotherapeutic control of virus infections are also more restricted than for diseases of bacterial, fungal, or protozoal origin. This is because of the very intimate relation between virus and host. The latter not only provides the energy and structural requirements of the virus, but it also carries out, under the control of the virus, replication and assembly of further virus particles, thereby increasing the intensity of the viral infection and facilitating its spread among a susceptible population.