Low Calorie Bulking Agents
This chapter discusses various bulking agents that have been used or proposed as replacements for fat or for carbohydrate in flour, starch, and sugar. The world may encounter the specter of food shortage. Already, hundreds of thousands of people exist at the edge of famine; thus, it is relevant to establish the need for low calorie foods before discussing use of bulking agents for preparation of these foods. The simplest approach towards caloric reduction in fat-based foods is reduction of fat content. The ready consumer acceptance of low fat milk products is a good example, and low fat margarines produced by special emulsification techniques have also had considerable success, particularly in certain European countries. Two types of bulking agents for carbohydrates are needed: a soluble material that can replace sucrose and other simple carbohydrates in food and an insoluble material capable of replacing flour or starch.