The first section in Volume 1 describes the fundamentals of nutrition and aging which include research strategies for the study of nutrition and aging. The nutritional modulation of the aging process which has provided a major breakthrough in the field of nutrition and longevity is also discussed. These include biomedical influences, and social and psychological aspects. Section 3 includes dietary characteristics of the elderly population and methods for the assessment of nutritional status. The nutritional status of the elderly with respect to individual nutrients as determined by dietary survey and by biochemical methods is described in Section 4. Section 4 also includes discussion on nutrient metabolism, requirements, nutritional imbalances, and deficiencies of nutrients. Energy metabolism and obesity as a factor in pathogenesis of diseases are also discussed.